With 3500 lakes, located in the western and northern parts of the country, 1194 of these lakes do not dry all the year around, with around 3000 rivers in total with a combined length of 67,000 kilometers, 6900 springs, 250 mineral water springs. 187 glaciers which covers 540 square km, it seems absurd to think of it as a place for nuclear waste dump.
The Obama administration has held informal talks with Mongolia about the possibility that the Central Asian nation might host an international repository for nuclear waste. Mongolia contains some of the largest expanses of unspoiled nature on Earth, and does not have any ambitions to develop a nuclear program of its own.
To litter its pristine environment with toxic, radioactive waste would be an humanitarian and enviromental crime.
Please urge the U.S. Energy Department to abandon its goal to persuade the Mongolian government to accept an atomic waste dump on its sovereign soil.
Signe the petition now. The petition to U.S. Energy Department, sponsored by The Clean Environment NGO for stopping the U.S. from creating a nuclear waste dump in Mongolia is available at globalsecuritynewswire.org/
We the undersigned call upon you to abandon the plan to create a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Mongolia. The people of Mongolia are proud of their country’s unspoiled nature and concerned citizens all over the world do not approve of your idea to dump atomic waste there. We strongly oppose the import of any nuclear material into Mongolia.
Please do not consider this peaceful and beautiful nation in your quest for a nuclear dump site.
We sincerely thank you for taking the time to read our very serious request.
Geography of Mongolia
Located in the landlocked plateau of Central Asia between China and Russia, Mongolia covers an entire area of 1.566.500 km- it takes the 15th place with its size in the world. Mongolia stretches about 2.400 km form the west to the east and about 1.260 km from the north to the south. The total length of the country’s border is 8.156 km. The total area of Mongolia is larger than the combined areas of Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy.
The northern part of the country is covered by forest mountain ranges and the southern part by desert, desert steppe, and steppe areas with low mountains. High snow-capped mountains and glaciers and the eastern part by vast plains and wild heaths dominate the western part. The Mongolian environment has a large variety of features. Mongolia can be divided into six zones; desert, mountain, mountain taiga, mountain forest steppe, arid steppe and taiga.
The mountain belt of the Mongol Altai, Khangai and Khentii mountainous regions, with their perpetual snow, glaciers, traces and signs of ancient ice covers, has been well preserved due to a constantly cold climate and strong winds. The area is inhabited by some endangered animals (such as the Argali sheep, Ibex, Snow Leopard, Rock Ptarmigan and Altai Snowcock) and plants (such as the Dwarf Siberian Pine and White Gentiana). About 81% of the country is higher than 1000 meters above sea level and the average elevation is 1580 meters. The highest mountain is Tavan Bogd in Bayan Ulgii Aimag at 4374 meters and the lowest point is Khukh Nuur in the east at 560 meters.
Mountains and dense forests predominate central and northern Mongolia and grasslands cover large areas of this region. Across the eastern part of the country stretches the vast land grasslands of the Asian steppe. The steppe grades into Gobi Desert, which extends throughout southern Mongolia from the east to the west of the country. The Gobi Desert, which extends throughout southern Mongolia from the east to the west of the country. The Gobi is mostly gravelly, but also contains large areas of sand dunes in the dries areas of Gobi near the southern border. The country has numerous saltwater and freshwater lakes. Although it boasts over 260 sunny days a year and is known as the “Land of the blue sky”, Mongolia’s climate is extreme. Long subarctic winters are harsh with average tempratures dropping to -34’C (-88’F) in January and early February. So some rivers remain frozen until June. The general landscape of the country is concerned its natural origin, which is comparatively less destroyed by human activities and remained keeping its original nature.
Great Lakes Water of Mongolia:
According to long term studies, Mongolia gets a 230 mm or 361 km.qube water of average annual precipitation . The most of it evaporates and only 10% or 36 km.qube stays on the surface and 37% of which waters the soils and 63% or 22 km.qube supplies the surface water-rivers and streams.
Mongolia has comparatively high levels of surface and ground water resources. The rivers of Mongolia belong to the inland drainage basins of the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and Central Asia. The water network is of a greater density in the north of the country. The longest river is the Orkhon at 1124 kilometers in length. There are some 3000 rivers in total with a combined length of 67,000 kilometers.
There are also over 3000 big and small lakes, 6,900 springs, 190 glaciers and 250 mineral water springs. 187 glaciers are in mongolia, which covers 540 square km. The biggest glacier of the country Potanin is in the Altai Mountains and has a total area of 107.9 square km.
Winter-Spring-Summer-Autumn Climate of Mongolia
The main characteristics of the climate of Mongolia are sunny days, long and cold winters, low precipitation and large annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal fluctuations in air temperature. The average mean temperature recorded in January is -34’C in the plateau and depressions, but extreme temperatures have been recorded between -50 and -56 degrees centigrade. In the northern mountains the average mean temperature in the warmest warmth is between +35’C and +41’C, depending on the area.
The total annual precipitation in mountainous regions averages to about 400 mm, in the steppe from 150-200 mm and in the desert-steppe less that 100 mm, About 75-85% of the precipitation falls during the three summer months. The spring season is often very windy and dust storms are common in the desert regions.
Fauna of Mongolia
The science study of Mongolian fauna was started in the second half of the 19th century. Everyone traveling in Mongolia may find it difficult to distinguish between wild and domesticated animals as both roam freely on the open, vast steppe. Though Mongolia does not have the large games such lion, elephant that attract visitors to Africa, it has many rare and endangered species such as the snow leaopard, Argali and Ibex. So our company no longer offering our hunting tours for some rare species like Argali, Ibex, Deer, Elk, Bear, Gazelles and Roe Deer.
Mammals in Mongolia: Currently 136 species of mammals concerning 8 classes, 22 families, 70 types of mammals have been registered in Mongolia, most of them are endemic in Central Asia. 60 species of them are hunted as they are game animals.
Birds of Mongolia: Mongolia has a rich composition of bird species due to the migratory routes from the Pasific ana Indian Oceans to the Mediterranean Sea and to Arctic Ocean and Northern Tundra.. 426 species of birds have been observed in Mongolia- 322 species or 78% are migrated. 30 species of birds are included in the “Red book of Mongolia” as they are concerned as rare and endangered.And some lakes as Khovsgul, Uvs, Khar Us, Dayan, Dorgon, Terkhiin Tsagaan and also some rivers where high density of birds is observed have been strictly protected partially. Birds such as Grus leucogeranus, Grus vipio, Chlamydotis undulata, ciconia migra, Pelecanus crispus, Platalea leucorodia, Anas formosa, Limnodromus semipalmatus, Larus relictus have been protected.
Reptiles in Mongolia: Currently 22 species of reptiles have been registered in the country such as alsophylax pipiens, teratoscincus przwalskii, cyrtopodion elongatus, laudakia stoliczkana, phrynocephalus versicolor, phrynocephalus helioscopus, lacerta agilis, lacerta vivipara, eryx tataricus, elaphe dione, coluber spinalis, elaphe schrenckii, natrix natrix, vipera berus, qkistrodon halys… most of these reptiles are endemic.Amphibians in Mongolia: In the world currently, 3 types, 29 families, 3000 species of insects have been registered, of which 2 types, 4 families of 8 species of amphibians have been observed in Mongolia such as Bufo danatensis, Salamandrella keyserlingii, Rana chensinensis, Hyla japonica, bufo raddei, …some of the amphibians are endemic.
Fish of Mongolia: Mongolia has 75 species of fishes. Fish that are not listed in the “Red book of Mongolia” are sport fish. Common fish in Mongolia: taimen, great kalyga, strugeons, arctis cisco, siberian whitefish, pikes- amur pike, northern pike, cyprinid fish, carp, roach, dwaft altai osman, mongolian grayling, mongolian redfin, look up, haitej sculpin…
Flora of Mongolia
There can be said to be three distinct types of ecosystem related to flora- grassland and shrubs, forests and desert vegetation. Crop cultivation and human settlements make up less than 1% of Mongolia’s territory. Although there is so much grassland here, used for grazing, overgrazing is a problem in some areas.
Forests: The natural regeneration of Mongolian forests is slow, fires and insects due to the harsh climate often damage the forests. 8.1% of the total territory is covered by forest, totaling 140 species of trees, shrubs and woody plants.Trees are used as a source of fuel, whether it is the larch, pine or birch in the north, the saxaul in Gobi Desert.
Nomadic Civilization and Culture of MongoliaMongolia is totally landlocked country so that its climate is sharp continental and dry with 4 seasons, the geographical location is diverse. Influenced by these, Mongolians have developed unique nomadic civilization since Neolite. They have run animal husbandry in their vast land and move for the best pasture and water frequently. But it does not mean that Mongols are all nomads living in their gers (traditional dwelling), also they have developed their own urban civilization and architecture. The first Mongolian Empire the Khunnu had its capital city on the bank of the River Orkhon. Each Empire of Mongolia had capital cities. Mongolian Architecture was influenced by Buddhism a lot like many other Buddhist Countries. You can see it from number of monasteries.
National Holidays of Mongolia
Tsagaan Sar – Lunar New Year: Although winter is long in Mongolia and it may be very cold in March and April, it is an accepted practice to mark the advent of Spring in February. It coincides with the New Year celebrations according to the oriental lunar calendar. Some researchers believe that the lunar calendar was invented by the nomadic tribes of Central Asia. Living in contact with nature and noticing the natural cycles, the nomads had long organised their life according the lunar phases.
Naadam Festival: The sports most popular with the Mongols since ancient times are wrestling, horse racing and archery. Together they form Eriin Gurvan Naadam – the three manly sports.
The three manly sports make up the core program of the National Day festivity which has been held annually for the past two centuries. Earlier, Naadam was often associated with religious ceremonies (worshipping the spirit of the mountains, the rocks and the rivers). At present it is a national holiday held 11-13th July each year to commemorate the Mongol People’s Revolution.
TRADITIONAL DWELLING- “the Mongolian Ger”
TRADITIONAL COSTUME OF MONGOLIA – “the Deel”
Religions of Mongolia
By now Mongolia’s main religion is Buddism, with 90% of the whole population are Buddhists. The rest are Muslims, Shamanist and few Christians. Mongolans’ first religion was shamanism, it arose during the Clan structure. At that time it was simple, just magic. According to archeological findings, about 100000-40000 years before the people lived on the land of today’s Mongolia had this religion. On the ancient earth, every clan had a belief about their origin that they were descended from an animal or a plant, and they called it tutelary genius. The Mongols adored deer or wolf.
Shamanism in Mongolia
The clans lived on the land of today’s Mongolia passed to class society. From clan structure people believed that there was an external force of the nature and they understood that they were poor and weak under it. So they worshipped to the force, and it was the base of Shamanism.According to it there are 99 heavens, 55 of which are the heavens of the west and influence good to human beings, and the rest 44 are the heavens of the east and considered as bad. The Mongols worship the good 55 heavens once a year by worshipping a sacred mountain or an ovoo. During the ceremony of ovoo worship, shamans offer fire and food to the spirits of the mountains nd the waters. And once a year shamans perform a special deed to abuse the bad heavens. According to Shamanism, after a death of someone his spirit goes to the heavens and his body stays under the ground. Today there are number of ethnic groups-Shamanists live in the north western part of the country.
Buddhism in Mongolia
People say that Buddhism first came to Mongolia 3rd cenruty BC, but the historical resources date Modun Shanyu’s reign 209-171 BC. After that till now over 2000 years, Buddhism has been being developed in Mongolia. By 1937, there were over 700 active monasteries in the country but after the communist destroy only 5 of them were left. After the democratic revolution of 1990, people have started reconstruction of many monasteries.